- By the beginning of 1917, how far did Eastern Front entrenchments reach? And Western Front?
- Describe Lloyd George’s leadership style with regard to the war, particularly focusing on his relationship with Haig and Robertson.
- Why caused Joffre’s fall from leadership over the French armies? Who replaced him initially? And then who replaced the replacement?
- Why was Russia unable to follow up on Brusilov’s successes?
- What caused Kerensky’s ultimate failure?
- On p. 312, read paragraph 1: “It is difficult . . . of modern warfare.” How effective is Keegan’s series of snapshots here? How does this photo album differ from those we have from Troy, Jerusalem, Marathon, Thermopylai . . . all the way to Blenheim, Waterloo, Gettysburg?
- How did the death of Franz Josef affect the Austrian peoples, civilian and military?
- Why did the Germans, civilian and military, suffer so much from hunger, malnutrition?
- Describe the principal differences between the Northern Italian armies of the Savoy and the southern recruits?
- What and when were the “French mutinies”? How did they begin? Who effectively ended them—and how? Why did the mutineers not seek to harm their officers?
- What was the Hindenberg line? How far did it reach?
- Who fought whom at Vimy Ridge? Who won—and why?
- Who fought the battle of Arras? Who won—and why?
- Why did Nivelle’s plan at the Aisne fail utterly? What happened to the men he sent forth?
- Keegan describes brief truces—Christmas 1914, Christmas 1916, periods allowed to mend wires and to gather dead and wounded. How did the British high command regard these truces? Comment?
- What economic problems arose from Russia’s rapid industrial mobilization?
- What was the February Revolution? How did it affect Russia’s war efforts?
- Once the czar abdicated, who ruled Russia and led the war effort? Generally, what was the government’s attitude toward the Bolsheviks?
- Who moved the capital from Saint Petersburg/Petrograd to Moscow and why?
- When exactly and why did Russia agree to peace with Germany? What was the cost to Russia?
- Describe the significance of the loss at Caporetto. And the significance of the stochastic factor for an Italian infantryman?
- Once the Italians fell back and back and back under the onslaught of Rommel’s forces, how did Cadorna seek to stop Italian soldiers from surrendering or escaping?
- Two main events influenced the U. S. to enter the war. What were they?
- Who initiated plans for the Third Battle of Ypres? How long was it fought? What was its principal aim? What were the results? How did it affect Haig’s reputation?
- Why would Keegan describe Gough as unusual for the war’s “gerontocratic standards”?
- Read Edwin Vaughan’s paragraphs on pages 363-364. Comments?
- How many tanks did the British use at Cambrai? How did Walter counter the tank attack? Who won at Cambrai?
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